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Mongol Empire


In history, the Mongol empire was the largest land empire in the world. It lasted between 1206- 1368 and was founded by Genghis Khan. Its strength is attributed to the trade in Southeast Asia and cultural exchange in the region. Further, the military in the empire had unique skills while the political organization was brilliant. The founder divided his empire amongst his sons after his death. Together with other family members, they helped expand the empire further. They conquered many parts of southeastern Asia including Persia and China. They also invaded and conquered Russia and eastern and western Europe. Nonetheless, just like many others, the empire collapsed in 1368. This essay focuses on the causes of the fall of the Mongol empire.

The Shaky Foundations

Foremost, after the death of the founder, Genghis khan, it became hard to summon the military leaders and to involve them in war. The leader did not leave a strong military and political or military foundation. It was, therefore, hard to make a decision on the individual to take over the leadership. After the choice was made, the ruler, Ogedei, though respected in the region, was passive. After his death, the same history of delays in electing a successor was repeated. The widow to Ogedei took over and insisted that her son should take over. Other similar conflicts would continue through history. Thus, inter-family rivalry resulted to the collapse of the Mongol empire. In addition, the family did not have respected from the states that they managed to conquer. Rather, they were more concerned about division of power. Rebellion from the Chinese people and other groups was therefore inevitable.

The Drunken Rulers and Inefficient Administration

Some of the rulers were drunkards and would die at an early age. As a result, there would be confusion as the empire tried to find the next successor within a short time. Further, different regions of the empire were administered differently. This is because the empire was too big to be administered effectively by one family. Hence, Russia and Ukraine were ruled by a descendant of the Genghis’ eldest son, while Persia and China were ruled by the descendants of Ogedei. Also, there was a tendency for some of the Mongolians to be assimilated in some of the areas to the extent that they could no longer rule effectively. Normally, in the Asian culture, the strongest population influences the decisions in a colony, which implies that a colonizer can find themselves under others if they are not strong enough. In the ultimate end, the Mongol empire collapsed because of inter-family conflicts, inefficient administration, and lack of good morals among the rulers.

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